Calculated formation energy of (1010 ̅) m-plane GaN surfaces. The density-functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with the generalized gradient approximation, using the plane-wave pseudopotential quantum-ESPRESSO package. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials were used to describe the interaction between valence electrons and ionic cores, where Ga 3d electrons were explicitly treated as valence electrons. The wave functions and electronic density were expanded in a plane-wave basis set truncated at a cutoff energy of 30 Ry and 240 Ry, respectively. The surface was modeled using a repeated slab geometry using a (2×2) unit cell with a thickness of seven GaN bilayers, where the Ga-terminated bottom side was passivated by pseudo-hydrogen with charge of 1.25e. In addition, the (1010) surface was modeled using 8 GaN atomic layers with a lateral dimension of 9.57 Å x 10.38 Å. A vacuum width of at least 15.0 Å was introduced between consecutive slabs, and a k-point mesh of 5x5x1 and 2x2x1 was used to sample the surface Brillouin zone for the polar and non-polar surfaces, respectively. Calculated formation energy of (1010 ̅) m-plane GaN surfaces with different oxygen configuration within the anion and cation-rich limits: ideal GaN surfaces of c-plane and m-plane; configurations with 100% replacement of nitrogen by oxygen on the surface c-plane and m-plane; 100% replacement of nitrogen by oxygen in the subsurface bilayer c-plane and m-plane; and configurations with 50% replacement of nitrogen of the surface and subsurface bilayers by oxygens c-plane and m-plane. In both cases, the ideal surface is chosen as the reference.

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Author Francesca M. Toma
Maintainer Email fmtoma@lbl.gov
DOI 10.17025/1764163
Institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Capability Node LLNL PEC Computational Materials Diagnostics and Optimization
Technology Type PEC
Data Source Type Modeling and Simulation
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Measurement Type Other None

Author Francesca M. Toma
Updated February 9, 2021, 15:32 (UTC)
Created February 4, 2021, 01:22 (UTC)